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In biology, a '''mutation''' is the permanent alteration of the base sequence|nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements. Mutations result from errors during DNA replication or other types of damage to DNA, which then may undergo error-prone repair (especially microhomology-mediated end joining), or cause an error during other forms of repair, or else may cause an error during replication (DNA repair#Translesion synthesis|translesion synthesis). Mutations may also result from Insertion (genetics)|insertion or Deletion (genetics)|deletion of segments of DNA due to mobile genetic elements. Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the...
VauthorsSharma S, Javadekar SM, Pandey M, Srivastava M, Kumari R, Raghavan SC | title = Homology and enzymatic requirements of microhomology-dependent alternative end joining | journal = Cell Death & Disease | volume = 6 | issue = 3 | pages = e1697 | date = March 2015 | pmid = 25789972 | pmc = 4385936 | doi = 10.1038/cddis.2015.58 }}), or cause an error during other forms of repair,{{cite journal | vauthors = Chen J, Miller BF, Furano AV | title = Repair of naturally occurring mismatches can induce mutations in flanking DNA | journal = eLife | volume = 3 | issue = | pages = e02001 | date = April 2014 | pmid = 24843013 | pmc = 3999860 | doi = 10.7554/elife.02001 }}{{cite journal | vauthors = Rodgers K, McVey M | title = Error-Prone Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks | journal = Journal of Cellular Physiology | volume = 231 | issue = 1 | pages = 15–24 | date = January 2016 | pmid = 26033759 | pmc = 4586358 | doi = 10.1002/jcp.25053 }} or else may cause an error during replication (DNA repair#Translesion synthesis|translesion synthesis). Mutations may also result from Insertion (genetics)|insertion or Deletion (genetics)|deletion of segments of DNA due to mobile genetic elements.{{cite journal | vauthors = Bertram JS | title = The molecular biology of cancer | journal = Molecular Aspects of Medicine | volume = 21 | issue = 6 | pages = 167–223 | date = December 2000 | pmid = 11173079 | doi = 10.1016/S0098-2997(00)00007-8 | publisher = Elsevier }}{{cite journal | vauthors = Aminetzach YT, Macpherson JM, Petrov DA | title = Pesticide resistance via transposition-mediated adaptive gene truncation in Drosophila | journal = Science | volume = 309 | issue = 5735 | pages = 764–7 | date = July 2005 | pmid = 16051794 | doi = 10.1126/science.1112699 | publisher = American Association for the Advancement of Science | bibcode = 2005Sci...309..764A }}{{cite journal | vauthors = Burrus V, Waldor MK | title = Shaping bacterial genomes with integrative and conjugative elements | journal = Research in Microbiology | volume = 155 | issue = 5 | pages = 376–86 | date = June 2004 | pmid = 15207870 | doi = 10.1016/j.resmic.2004.01.012 | publisher = Elsevier }} Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the observable characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes including: evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune system, including junctional diversity.
VauthorsSawyer SA, Parsch J, Zhang Z, Hartl DL | title = Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila | journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | volume = 104 | issue = 16 | pages = 6504–10 | date = April 2007 | pmid = 17409186 | pmc = 1871816 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.0701572104 | publisher = National Academy of Sciences | bibcode = 2007PNAS..104.6504S | author3 = Zhi Zhang }} Due to the damaging effects that mutations can have on genes, organisms have mechanisms such as DNA repair to prevent or correct mutations by reverting the mutated sequence back to its original state.
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